The establishment of this capital marked the start of the Northern Song period. The Jurchen , a subject tribe of the Liao, rebelled against them and formed their own state, the Jin dynasty — In , a Song force of , troops under Chancellor Jia Sidao was defeated by Kublai's newly appointed commander-in-chief, general Bayan. A head sculpture of an arhat , 11th Century. Emperor Taizu of Song r. There were entertainment quarters in the cities providing a constant array of amusements. The western and southern borders remain unchanged from the previous map, however the north of the Qinling Huaihe Line was under control of the Jin dynasty. Society of the Song dynasty Clockwise from upper left:
The government sponsored massive shipbuilding and harbor improvement projects, and the construction of beacons and seaport warehouses to support maritime trade abroad, including at the major international seaports , such as Quanzhou , Guangzhou , and Xiamen , that were sustaining China's commerce. It had able military officers such as Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. Civil service examinations and the gentry[ edit ] Main article: There were puppeteers, acrobats, theatre actors, sword swallowers, snake charmers, storytellers , singers and musicians, prostitutes, and places to relax, including tea houses, restaurants, and organized banquets. Although Hulagu was allied with Kublai Khan , his forces were unable to help in the assault against the Song, due to Hulagu's war with the Golden Horde. The idealist Chancellor , Fan Zhongyan — , was the first to receive a heated political backlash when he attempted to institute the Qingli Reforms , which included measures such as improving the recruitment system of officials, increasing the salaries for minor officials, and establishing sponsorship programs to allow a wider range of people to be well educated and eligible for state service. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit instead of aristocratic or military position and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire. Therefore, their ideological move showed that the Jin considered Song reign in China complete, with the Jin replacing the Song as the rightful rulers of China Proper. The Xia dynasty's territory generally remain unchanged. The Mongols , led by Genghis Khan r. With the backing of Emperor Shenzong — , Wang Anshi severely criticized the educational system and state bureaucracy. Seeking to resolve what he saw as state corruption and negligence, Wang implemented a series of reforms called the New Policies. The Song were forced to provide tribute to the Khitans, although this did little damage to the Song economy since the Khitans were economically dependent upon importing massive amounts of goods from the Song. In , a Song force of , troops under Chancellor Jia Sidao was defeated by Kublai's newly appointed commander-in-chief, general Bayan. And all the things that keep us here In the mysterious distance Between a man and a woman How can I hurt when I'm holding you? A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song dynasty — The Song government confiscated portions of land owned by the landed gentry in order to raise revenue for these projects, an act which caused dissension and loss of loyalty amongst leading members of Song society but did not stop the Song's defensive preparations. The civil service system became institutionalized on a small scale during the Sui and Tang dynasties, but by the Song period it became virtually the only means for drafting officials into the government. Because of the removal of the previous defensive forest, the Jin army marched quickly across the North China Plain to Kaifeng. Society and culture[ edit ] Main articles: In one such project, cartographers created detailed maps of each province and city that were then collected in a large atlas. Although weakened and pushed south beyond the Huai River , the Southern Song found new ways to bolster its strong economy and defend itself against the Jin dynasty. Society of the Song dynasty Clockwise from upper left: The former emperor would eventually be forced to commit suicide under the orders of Kublai's great-great grandson, Gegeen Khan , out of fear that Emperor Gong would stage a coup to restore his reign. I've been sleeping in the street again Like a stray dog I've been trying to feel complete again But you're gone and so is God The soul needs beauty for a soul mate When the soul wants Tansen Sen asserts that more Buddhist monks from India travelled to China during the Song than in the previous Tang dynasty —
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