Add part-of-speech information for all entries Add comparative notes for the most important common, interesting, obscure items reflecting local Chinese topolects. Second, there may not even be a Chinese character that standardly represents the morpheme-etymon one has settled on. Such an endeavour has goals that differ from those the present dictionary. For that to happen, however, much more needs to be done. After the entry text follows a tag list on a separate line. When it comes to sounds and syllables that are not found in any other variety of Sinitic, the effort of exact notation collapses altogether, such as in the case of idiosyncratic phonological developments and loan words, two phenomena that are often closely related. Moreover, I am deeply grateful to all the speakers of Dungan that have provided me with spoken material during my fieldwork.
Acknowledgements I'd like to express my gratitude to the following people in alphabetic order for their role in making this dictionary possible: This is particularly the case for the morphemes of dialect words at the local level. Why then provide Chinese character equivalents at all, given the imposssibility of finding consistent and exact representations for all words, not to mention all phonemes? You can get in touch via email: First of all, the assertion that two forms are etymologically identical is subject to judgment, whether it is that of a linguist or that of an average speaker of the language, so that it does not constitute an objective criterion. Add a transcription of each headword in the latin alphabet romanization. In the present dictionary, I have given the most obvious equivalent, relegating other candidates to the notes, and abstaining altogether from providing purely phonetic or phonological renderings in Chinese characters where no standard morpheme representation exists. After the entry text follows a tag list on a separate line. Even if an explicit, well-defined standard is adopted, it may not have all the syllables found in the topolect. Development Plan In addition to expanding the dictionary with more entries, I plan to develop the dictionary as follows: The tags are of different kinds and are explained here. Underlying tones are either given as modifiers after the dot, or optionally, as a separate formula after the surface tones, separated by a colon. Call for Participation This is a work in progress. Alphabetic Version In order to browse by tags semantic fields, grammatical categories etc. However, this is only possible in cases where a plausible etymon can be found for the morpheme in question, and when there exists a minimally non-obscure character that is used to write it. Next come clickable cross-references to other entries. When both an explanatory gloss and the nearest translation equivalent in English is given, these are separated by a colon "father's mother: Second, there may not even be a Chinese character that standardly represents the morpheme-etymon one has settled on. Syllables with this phoneme have no unambiguous and exact representation in the Chinese writing system. Of course, there are also multisyllabic words that cannot be divided into constituent morphemes. To some extent the descriptive problem is due to variation within Standard Gansu Dungan as well as within local varieties. If nothing else is indicated, the tones given are surface tones. Continue adding Chinese character interpretations where viable and meaningful. It means to prefer etymological spellings over phonetic ones, so that the character chosen gives no definite indication of Dungan pronunciation. I think that one may profitably use Chinese characters as a sort of convenient etymological shorthand, which allows one to see the putative etymological correspondences at a glance. Such an endeavour has goals that differ from those the present dictionary. It is hoped that this dictionary will eventually reach a form in which it can be published as a standard reference work for Dungan language.
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