Two-way communication permitted the instructor to call and question any student in any classroom and enabled any student to put questions to the instructor. One such system was the GCA, or ground-controlled approach system. Multiconductor cables were provided wire communications; they could be reeled out rapidly and as many as four conversations could take place on them simultaneously through the use of carrier telephony. Two major additions in the U. During most of the war, communication between ground and air was difficult and elementary. In addition, a system of torn-tape relay centres was established so that tributaries could forward messages through the major centres and retransmit quickly by transferring a perforated tape message from the receiving to the transmitting positions. Military work in these fields was carried out actively in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. A new element in warfare, the airplane , introduced in World War I, immediately posed a problem in communication. Thus signal communication, combining in itself the powers of photography, television, radar, and other instruments using the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, moved into such new areas of military electronics as battle area surveillance and electronic warfare devices to interfere with, or jam, enemy transmitters.
As early as Germany had completed the design and manufacture of a complete line of portable and mobile radio equipment for its army and air force. Despite efforts to protect the wire lines, they were frequently cut at critical times as the result of the intense artillery fire. As the war progressed there was a growing appreciation of the need for improved electrical communications of much greater capacity for the larger units and of the need within regiments for electrical communications, which had heretofore been regarded as unessential and impractical. Both radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy were in wide use, but radiotelephony had not as yet proved reliable and satisfactory for tactical military communication. An increase in manufacturing plant became vital, and research and development in the communications—electronics field was unprecedented. Patton , after his breakout from the Normandy beachhead. This led all the belligerents to develop and use radio wireless as an alternate means of communication. The need for communication between the homelands and many far-flung theatres of war gave rise to the need for improved long-range overseas communication systems. The military services learned well from their wartime experiences the importance of scientific research and development in all fields, including communications electronics. During the latter years of the war, new and improved communication and electronic devices came forth from research and development in ever-increasing numbers. Military work in these fields was carried out actively in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. A single instructor could teach many small classes simultaneously, each grouped before a TV set where they could watch demonstrations closely. Army, which, prior to World War II, had under development tank, vehicular, and man-pack frequency-modulated radio transmitters and receivers. Major telephone switchboards of much greater capacity were needed. The messenger systems included foot, mounted, motorcycle, automobile, airplane, homing pigeon, and the messenger dog. Radio-controlled guidance of falling bombs enabled an operator in a bomber to direct a bomb to the target. Combinations of radar and communications for the landing of aircraft in zero visibility were perfected. The development of the air, infantry, artillery, and armoured team created new requirements for split-second communication by radio among all members. Blinker-light signaling was still used. In every tank there was at least one radio and in some command tanks as many as three. An intricate system of telephone lines involving thousands of miles of wire soon appeared on each side. Television proved a valuable training aid in military schools, where mass instruction, especially in manual skills, was needed and where instructors were few. Developed during the late s and early s by Edwin H. With these sets telegraph communication could be conducted at distances of more than miles kilometres with vehicles in normal motion on the road. Combinations of radio direction-finding, radar, and communications systems were developed and used for ground control of intercept aircraft—the system called GCI ground-controlled intercept. Pole lines with many crossarms and circuits came into being in the rear of the opposing armies, and buried cables and wires were laid in the elaborate trench systems leading to the forwardmost outposts.
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